Stem Cell Therapy Genetics and Rheumatoid Arthritis
What do genes have to do with arthritisé No.not those kinds of genes. these kinds of jeans.Genetics can explain why infections can trigger rheumatoid arthritisAppearing in Science Codex was an article describing a new international study thathas revealed how genetics could explain why different environmental exposures can triggerthe onset of different forms of rheumatoid arthritis.A team at the Arthritis Research UK Centre for Genetics and Genomics at The Universityof Manchester published their findings in the American Journal of Human Genetics.A proportion of rheumatoid arthritis patients
test positive for autoantibodies, while 30%remain seronegative. In this study, the researchers have better defined the genetic distinctionbetween these two disease subtypes: seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis.They have now established that different genetic variants of a protein that plays a vital rolein how the body's immune system fights infection are associated with the two forms of rheumatoidarthritis. This provides clues to the theory that exposure to different infectious agents,such as bacteria or viruses, trigger the different forms of rheumatoid arthritis in susceptibleindividuals. Steve Eyre from the genetics and genomicscentre in Manchester commented: quot;We recognise
that rheumatoid arthritis is a complex diseasethat can have variable presentation and outcomes for different people, in particular in theway they respond to treatment. These findings add to our ability to genetically define subtypesof rheumatoid arthritis, which is an important step towards selecting the best treatmentfor each patient.quot; Comment: Seropositive and sero negative rheumatoidarthritis behave differently and this is an exciting discovery.
Stem Cell Arthritis Treatment limbus stem cells
Another major coup for stem cell researchnext Researchers regrow corneas using adult humanstem cells Loren Grush reporting for FOX News describeda procedure where Boston researchers have successfully regrown human corneal tissueâ€“ a feat that could potentially restore vision in the blind.The achievement also marks one of the first times that scientists have constructed tissueusing adultderived human stem cells. In a new study published in the journal Nature,researchers from Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute, Boston Children's , Brighamand Women's and the VA Boston Healthcare
System detailed their groundbreaking research.According to the paper, the key to the study's success revolves around a molecule known asABCB5, which serves as a biomarker for previously elusive limbal stem cells.Residing in the eye's limbus â€“ the border of the cornea and the whites of the eye â€“ thelimbal stem cells are responsible for maintaining and recreating corneal tissue. Because oftheir regenerative ability, scientists have long hoped to harness these stem cells forregrowing human tissue in those with blindness due to corneal injury or disease.The only problemé They've been rather difficult to track down.Frank's lab originally discovered the crucial
ABCB5 molecule over 10 years ago, findingthat it was present in skin and intestine precursor cells. But more recently, his teamrevealed that ABCB5 was also an important component of the eye's limbal stem cells,preventing them from undergoing apoptosis â€“ or cell death.To further prove ABCB5's role in the eye, Frank and his team created two groups of miceâ€“ ones lacking a functional ABCB5 gene and ones with a fully functioning ABCB5 gene.The mice lacking ABCB5 lost their population of limbal stem cells and were unable to repairinjuries to their corneas. â€œWhen we found thisâ€¦we thought if we couldenrich or isolate these ABCB5positive cells
and transplant them, they should be able tocure corneal disease,â€� Frank said. Using the corneal tissue from deceased humandonors, the researchers were able to locate the limbal stem cells using antibodies thatbind to ABCB5. Once they identified the stem cells, they extracted them from the donortissue and transplanted them into mice whose limbal stem cells had been removed. As expected,fully normal humanderived corneal tissue was generated in the mice â€“ allowing themto see once again. Comment: What an elegant study! I am so impressed.